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Against the Liberal Order's epigraphs highlight a sense that industrialization is a matter of national security. For Russian and Turkish revolutionaries alike, building factories was an extension of the struggle against foreign occupation at the end of the First World War. In the 1930s, Soviet leaders occasionally invoked Lenin's claim that "every factory should be our fortress" as war threatened Europe. In Turkey, a similar phrase, attributed to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, became a ubiquitous element of the country's politics. Below are photographs of the Turkish slogan "every factory is a fortress," including one from the Soviet-Turkish factory in Kayseri.   

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"Every Factory a Fortress." Turgutlu.

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"Every Factory a Fortress." Kırşehir. 

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"Every Factory a Fortress." Kayseri. 

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